Thursday, October 31, 2019

MGT 302 MOD 1 SLP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

MGT 302 MOD 1 SLP - Essay Example Hence management of the company can introduce newer ways and techniques of imparting the training information to the employees (Buchanan and Huczynski). This will keep the employees interested in the training. Introducing games, or other interactive sessions in the sessions as well as making the employees participate allows for better performance in the training programs. It is up to the management to focus on the employee needs and to identify the various elements that motivate them. Using these methods will help the trainers make the sessions more interesting, interactive and will automatically lead to better performance for most employees. Theory X & Theory Y – Relation to work: Based on the test the score of the management totaled to 38 which clearly shows ‘Generally X Theory management’, while my preferences gave the result of 67 which clearly indicates, ‘strongly prefers Y-theory management’ (Business Balls). Based on these scores it is clear th at as an individual my choice of behavior is very different from that what is presented by the management (Buchanan and Huczynski). I prefer to be recognized and to contribute to the company. It is clear that the management does not pay too much heed to the employees and their needs. This clearly leaves a sense of dissatisfaction and also leads to reduced interest in the work as well (Robbins and Judge).

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Storm Drainage Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Storm Drainage Study - Essay Example A line graph is usually used for the discharge over time. Rainfall is plotted with the use of a bar graph. There are several factors that control the shape of a hydrograph. The different shapes are shown and the main components are labelled according to Weyman, 1975. Hydrographs have differences between the peak rainfall from its peak discharge. The difference is the lag time. If the lag time is great, there is a less chance of flooding. A short lag time will indicate that water had already reached the river channel at a fast rate. The rise in discharge shown in the is called the rising limb, and the decrease in the discharge is called the falling limb. The larger size means that there is longer lag time as water has a longer distance to reach the river trunk. The shape of the basin is normally elongated and produces a lower peak flow and longer lag time than a circular basin with the same size (Gillesania,2006). The line graph illustrates the change in height of water in the river over time, while the bar graphs illustrates discharge of water in the river with respect to time. The study was taken for 96 hours or 4 days. It was done continuously, taking the height reading every hour for 96 hours. All the readings vary from each other. In its analysis, there was almost a steady flow of water from the start up to 42 hours. After 42 hours, the water in the river began to rise. The rising of the water is called the process of rising limb. The time between the rise of water and the time the water reaches its peak is known to be the basin lag time. It reached the peak flow at the 57th hour in the study. This means that water had reached its peak discharge and is now starting to fall down. From the peak point, when the water height starts to fall down the process is called recession limb. After the recession limb, the water discharge will normalize. Channel Design Given data are: Apply the Manning formula to design a suitable breadth b, with Q = 1.1 m2s the given data of discharge of the channel d = 0.6 m n = 0.015 where: v = velocity, m/s S = 0.0005 R = hydraulic radius v = R2/3S1/ 2 S = slopen n = Manning's coefficient of roughness A = db A = cross-sectional area b = breadth Q = Av d = depth wetted perimeter = 2d + b v = R2/3S1/ 2 n Requirement = width of base b of the open channel Discharge Q of the river into the open channel Design of water pump to discharge water from the river to the open channel Computations: A = db = (0.6)b Wetted Perimeter = 2d + b = 2(0.4) + b = 0.8 + b = 0.8 + b. Q = Av 1.1 = 0.6b 1.1(0.015) = 0.6b 0.0165 = 0.6b = b 1.2406 = b = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093 = b3 1.9093(1.44 + 2.4b + b2) = 0.36b5 2.7494 + 4.5423b +

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Key Elements Of Parsons Concept Of Society Sociology Essay

Key Elements Of Parsons Concept Of Society Sociology Essay The society is regarded to be the key element of research of such science as history, sociology, philosophy, economics, etc., but there is no one theoretical understanding of this concept yet so far. Since the times of Plato and Aristotle the society was identified with the state and this concept was true up to the New Time (Hobbes Th., Locke J.). Only in the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Kant I., Hegel G. there starts the separation of these concepts, when the society is regarded independently and perceived as the idea of mankind and moral-political unity. Gradually within the frames of sociology the definition of the society, that becomes the classical and universal one, is fixed. The key criterion of the concept of society is the presence of people and certain communication between them. In other words, the society is considered as a community or union of people that possesses such features as territory, developed culture, political independence, etc. But this definition is cont roversial as primitive societies do not have developed culture, and nomadic societies do not have single territory. So the question arises how is it possible to define the society? There are many attempts and directions in studying and systematizing sociological opinions and outlooks of the concept of society. Modern western sociology is presented by abundance of different schools and trends, and each of them has its own approaches and theoretical views on the concept of society. The school of structural functionalism turned out to be one of the most fruitful in this trend, with the American sociologist Talcott Parsons as its representative. He uses a system approach while analyzing the society and considers the society as a social system which, in its turn, is a subsystem of the system of social act. In the theory of social action, the society is analyzed as a complex system along with other subsystems such as culture, personality and organism. All these subsystems interact with e ach other and with subsystem of the society. At the same time the society is regarded as the system that rises over individuals and does not depend on their thoughts and acts; individuals come and go, they are born and die, but nevertheless the society exists, keeps on functioning, developing and evolving. The main function of the society is using of the balanced combination of mechanisms of the control in the course of the relation with five environments surrounding it, and also a degree of internal integration. This can explain the self-sufficiency and isolation of the society as a complex system. This work concludes that the key elements of Parsons concept of society is the Theory of Action, that is the bench mark for further development of the whole concept of society; structural functionalism as the key tool that reveals the essence and interaction of the elements of the society from the point of view of their functioning; and the concept of social order, which is a kernel of s ociety as a system. Parsons uses a system approach to analyze the society as a type of social system. He regards the society as a system consisting of different interrelated elements that make integrity. At the same time the society as a system possesses a certain structure and function. Comparatively firm tie of the elements in the system and relations between the system as a whole and its parts make the structure of the system. The function of the system is in the role that the element performs; the contribution that a certain activity makes into common activity. In its turn, each element of the system can form a new system and as a result within one system there can be several subsystems. The system is the integral unit and it can interact with environment and in the process of interaction it can be an active side. Parsons (1966) noticed that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the society is a special kind of social systemà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ treat the social system as one of the primary subsystems of the human action system , the others being the behavioral organism, the personality of the individual, and the cultural system (p. 5). The system is understood as something integral that confronts its environment, that is segregated from its environment and that exists independently from other things. The society of Parsons (1966) is a  «self-sufficient » social system isolated from other subsystems (p. 9). As a self-sufficient system it must possess certain features. Parsons (1966) explains self-sufficiency as the function from balanced combination of control mechanisms over the relations of the society with the environment and the degree of its inner integration. The society is able to institutionalize some elements of culture that are specified from outside by the system of culture; to grant a wide spectrum of the roles of the individual and also to control economic complex and territory. The period from the Second World War until 1960s, as notes Alexander (1987): was marked by the emergence of structural-functional theory (p.35). Structural functionalism while considering the society underlines that any system aims at balance as it is characterized with concordance of the elements; it always affects the deviations the way to adjust them and return to equilibrium position. Any dysfunctions are overcome by the system, and each element contributes something into supporting its stability. While analyzing the society Parsons constantly feels instability that was intrinsic to a social system and while writing his works he concentrated on problems of supporting the balance, self-regulation and self-organization of the society. As Edward C. Devereux notes (1961): One cannot ever take for granted, Parsons argues, that the motives, goals, capacities and values of individual actors will automatically move them toward the sorts of adequate role performances necessary for the fun ctioning of this or that particular social system (Black, p. 35). He is not interested in what processes exactly influence the society and overbalance it, or break the relations of separate elements and subsystems in the whole system. He pays attention to the way the system eliminates the negative interference in the processes of its functioning, how the system manages to survive and function in the complicated and changing conditions. How and to what extent the system manages to preserve its ability to self-healing. According to Edvard C. Devereux, Parsons does indeed postulate an equilibrium-seeking tendency as a property of systems of any sort, partly as a generalization from experience, but more particularly for heuristic purposes (Black, 1961, p. 33). In his works Parsons pays special attention to the problem of order that is closely connected with preserving the society in the stable condition and achieving the balance. According to Parsons (1966), the core of any society as a system is a special organized normative order with the help of which a collective life of people is organized. Obeying the norms and laws that exist in this society by each member of the society, is understood under the social order, i.e. the individual should perform the roles that are expected of him. Within the social system Parsons (ibid.) distinguishes one of four subsystems societal community which represents the single collective that obeys certain established normative order, some set of statuses, rights, and obligations. By means of police functions and various sanctions are implemented the control over observance a normative system of order by collective. The collective forming the societal community represents an association of the people rallied on a basis of the accepted order. According to Parsons (ibid.), integration of people is the basic function of the given subsystem, that is, the process of association of different elements into a single whole. To achieve and p reserve the balance and order in the social system it is necessary to solve some functional problems that arise in the process of existence and functioning of any system. Parsons calls these problems motivational problem of order, their solution is in satisfaction of biological and psychological needs of the individuals, in effective activity of organs of social control and in coincidence of personal motivations of the individual with the norms of the society with the aim to perform the roles and objectives prescribed by the society (Black, 1961, p. 35). The concept of the social order characterizes the society as an internally interrelated and self-sustained social system that works and functions in external environment. Proceeding from the structural-functionalism Parsons (1966) defines five types of the system that surround the society as a social system: ultimate reality includes religious and moral norms, cultural system value-normative structures, personality system needs and interests, system of organism instincts, temperament, etc., and physical-organic environment geographical conditions for the society to exist and national environment. In his work The Social System while analyzing interaction of the society and the systems that surround it Parsons faces the problems in building and defining surrounding systems, depending on the level they enter the social system from. This scheme gets even more complicated when these interrelated systems function differently, i.e. each of the systems performs different function in the total system of action. Parsons uses structural-functional approach while analyzing the society. This approach bases on the ideas of Durkheim E. and Marx K. and analyzes t he structures and systems of the society at macro-level. Structural functionalism presents the society as a system consisting of large subsystems economics, politics, law, religion, family, etc. These subsystems are interrelated and mutually dependent. Representatives of structural- functional approach analyze social subsystems and basing on this analysis reveal how these subsystems are mutually dependent, what good or harm they do to the society. Proceeding from Parsons structural-functional analysis each social system has a number of functional requirements or prerequisites that are met within the frameworks of social subsystems: Considering a whole society (e.g., the United States) as a type of social system, Parsons imagined four subsystems emerging to satisfy the four functional needs. Thus, the economy specializes in securing the material conditions of society (adaption); political institutions prioritize the goals of society and ensure that they are attained by mobilizing social resources (goal attainment); the legal system plays a key role in maintaining social regulation and solidarity (integration); and the family, religion, and education aim to produce individuals who have the appropriate needs, values, motives, and skills (pattern maintenance) (Seidman, 1998, p, 109). Thus, the system must adjust to the environment, achieve the aims, have inner unity and be able to preserve this state, to reproduce the structure and relieve a stress in the system. Thanks to the defining these four functions it became possible to analyze the systems of any level in terms of functional subsystems. Talcott Parsons has developed very difficult and extensive concept of society. It is based on a paradigm of social action which Parsons worked all long life in a science. He used a system approach for understanding the society as entire system. At the very high level there is a system of social act a self-organizing system, the specific character of which, unlike the system of physical or biological action, is expressed in the presence of symbolism in the first place (language, values, etc.), secondly, of norms, and finally of irrationality and independence from environment conditions. In this system of social act Parsons defines four subsystems: organism subsystem that ensures the adaptation function and gives the system physical and energy resources to interact with the environment; personality subsystem ensuring achieving the aims; social system that is responsible for integration of the actions of lots of individuals; cultural system that contains values, beliefs, knowledge, e tc. Proceeding from structural functionalism, within the frameworks of the social system Parsons, in his turn, also defines four subsystems and each of them performs one of four main functions: economic one called on to ensure the system adaptation to the environment, political one, the meaning of which is to achieve the aim, societal community, that ensures inner unity and performs the function of integration, and cultural subsystem the function of which is to preserve institutional cultural models, that is responsible for legitimization of normative order and preserving the state of unity. Thus, each subsystem specializes in performing certain function and the results can be used by another, wider system. Besides, each subsystem depends on other subsystems; they exchange the results of their activity. Talkott Parsonss theoretical works do not differ by a surface, the heritage of the classical period of sociology is characteristic for them, which topical in our days too.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Visualizing Rhetoric Essay -- Philosophical Philosophy Essays

Visualizing Rhetoric I. Principles of Visualizing Rhetoric The idea for Visualizing Rhetoric began after being introduced to rhetorical thinking models, Richard Paul’s Critical Thinking model and the Constructivist approach to teaching. Its aims are to unite the visual and the verbal, the critical and the constructive; to present the student with a practical way to both break down and understand, and also build and communicate an argument. The underlying principle of Visualizing Rhetoric, put simply, is that all communication is rhetorical (McCroskey, 1993). Communication presupposes an audience and a source. Furthermore, the methods of logical thought borrowed from mathematics, and too often applied to composition – namely the premise/conclusion structure of the syllogism – are not suitable for communication. Another paradigm for thinking about arguments and communication must be used. Aristotle called this structure the enthymeme, or Rhetorical Syllogism (McCroskey, 1993). The Rhetorical Syllogism provides a shift from the purely logical mode in that it represents more accurately the way in which arguments are communicated from a source to a receiver. It adds to the premise/conclusion model (data/claim in rhetorical thinking) a third major element, called the warrant. The warrant is the bridge that the speaker uses to connect the data to the claim. In other words, the warrant is the underlying set of inferences (asserted or assumed) that connects the pieces of the rhetorical argument. It authorizes the relationship between data and claim (Toulmin, 1958). By adding this crucial and often missed piece to the compositional puzzle, one can see how it transforms an assertion into something tha... two dimensions in organizing and examining their thoughts, they will be able to conceive of arguments as a structure built to communicate meaning. The structure, like any physical structure, has a goal and a purpose. Students can diagram the foundation of an argument, build different strands, and learn how to see connections between different elements. Works Cited 1. Booth, W. C. (1998). The Vocation of a Teacher: Rhetorical Occassions 1967-1988. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2. McCroskey, J. C. (1993). An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication (8th ed.). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. 3. Toulmin, S. (1958). The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Works Referenced 1. Paul, R. (1990). Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World. Santa Rosa: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Vampire Diaries: The Fury Chapter Fourteen

White owl†¦ hunting bird†¦ hunter†¦ tiger. Playing with you like a cat with a mouse. Like a cat†¦ a great cat†¦ a kitten. A white kitten. Death is in the house. And the kitten, the kitten had run from Damon. Not out of fear, but out of the fear of being discovered. Like when it had stood on Margaret's chest and wailed at the sight of Elena outside the window. Elena moaned and almost surfaced from unconsciousness, but the gray fog dragged her back under before she could open her eyes. Her thoughts seethed around her again. Poisoned love†¦ Stefan, it hated you before it hated Elena†¦ White and gold†¦ something white†¦ something white under the tree†¦ This time, when she struggled to open her eyes, she succeeded. And even before she could focus in the dim and shifting light, she knew. She finally knew. The figure in the trailing white dress turned from the candle she was lighting, and Elena saw what might have been her own face on its shoulders. But it was a subtly distorted face, pale and beautiful as an ice sculpture, but wrong. It was like the endless reflections of herself Elena had seen in her dream of the hall of mirrors. Twisted and hungry, and mocking. â€Å"Hello, Katherine,† she whispered. Katherine smiled, a sly and predatory smile. â€Å"You're not as stupid as I thought,† she said. Her voice was light and sweet-silvery, Elena thought. Like her eyelashes. There were silvery lights in her dress when she moved, too. But her hair was gold, almost as pale a gold as Elena's own. Her eyes were like the kitten's eyes: round and jewel blue. At her throat she wore a necklace with a stone of the same vivid color. Elena's own throat was sore, as if she had been screaming. It felt dry as well. When she turned her head slowly to the side, even that little motion hurt. Stefan was beside her, slumped forward, bound by his arms to the wrought-iron pickets of the gate. His head sagged against his chest, but what she could see of his face was deathly white. His throat was torn, and blood had dripped onto his collar and dried. Elena turned back to Katherine so quickly that her head spun. â€Å"Why? Why did you do that?† Katherine smiled, showing pointed white teeth. â€Å"Because I love him,† she said in a childish singsong. â€Å"Don't you love him, too?† It was only then that Elena fully realized why she couldn't move, and why her arms hurt. She was tied up like Stefan, lashed securely to the closed gate. A painful turning of her head to the other side revealed Damon. â€Å"Which one do you like better?† Katherine asked, in an intimate, confiding tone. â€Å"You can tell me. Which one do you think is best?† Elena looked at her, sickened. â€Å"Katherine,† she whispered. â€Å"Please. Please listen to me†¦ â€Å"Tell me. Go on.† Those jewel blue eyes filled Elena's vision as Katherine leaned in close, her lips almost touching Elena's. â€Å"I think they're both fun. Do you like fun, Elena?† Revolted, Elena shut her eyes and turned her face away. If only her head would stop spinning. Katherine stepped back with a clear laugh. â€Å"I know, it's so hard to choose.† She did a little pirouette, and Elena saw that what she had vaguely taken for the train to Katherine's dress was Katherine's hair. It flowed like molten gold down her back to spill over the floor, trailing behind her. â€Å"It all depends on your taste,† Katherine continued, doing a few graceful dance steps and ending up in front of Damon. She looked over at Elena impishly. â€Å"But then I have such a sweet tooth.† She grasped Damon by the hair, and, yanking his head up, sank her teeth into his neck. â€Å"No! Don't do that; don't hurt him any more†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Elena tried to surge forward, but she was tied too tightly. The gate was solid iron, set in stone, and the ropes were sturdy. Katherine was making animal sounds, gnawing and chewing at the flesh, and Damon moaned even in unconsciousness. Elena saw his body jerk reflexively with pain. â€Å"Please stop; oh, please stop-â€Å" Katherine lifted her head. Blood was running down her chin. â€Å"But I'm hungry and he's so good,† she said. She reared back and struck again, and Damon's body spasmed. Elena cried out. I was like that, she thought. In the beginning, that first night in the woods, I was like that. I hurt Stefan like that, I wanted to kill him†¦ Darkness swept up around her, and she gave in to it gratefully. Alaric's car skewed on a patch of ice as it reached the school, and Meredith almost ran into it. She and Matt jumped out of her car, leaving the doors open. Ahead, Alaric and Bonnie did the same. â€Å"What about the rest of the town?† Meredith shouted, running toward them. The wind was rising, and her face burned with frost. â€Å"Just Elena's family-Aunt Judith and Margaret,† Bonnie cried. Her voice was shrill and frightened, but there was a look of concentration in her eyes. She leaned her head back as if trying to remember something, and said, â€Å"Yes, that's it. They're the other ones the dogs will be after. Make them go somewhere-like the cellar. Keep them there!† â€Å"I'll do it. You three take the dance!† Bonnie turned to run after Alaric. Meredith raced back to her car. â€Å"Go back in! Get everybody inside and shut the doors!† he yelled at the sheriff's officers. But there wasn't time. He reached the cafeteria just as the first lurking shape in the darkness did. One officer went down without a sound or a chance to fire his gun. Another was quicker, and a gunshot rang out, amplified by the concrete courtyard. Students screamed and began to run away from it, into the parking lot. Alaric went after them, yelling, trying to herd them back. Other shapes came out of the darkness, from between parked cars, from all sides. Panic ensued. Alaric kept shouting, kept trying to gather the terrified students toward the building. Out here they were easy prey. In the courtyard, Bonnie turned to Matt. â€Å"We need fire!† she said. Matt darted into the cafeteria and came out with a box half-full of dance programs. He threw it to the ground, groping in his pockets for one of the matches they'd used to light the candle before. The paper caught and burned brightly. It formed an island of safety. Matt continued to wave people into the cafeteria doors behind it. Bonnie plunged inside, to find a scene just as riotous as outside. She looked around for someone in authority but couldn't see any adults, only panicked kids. Then the red and green crepe paper decorations caught her eye. The noise was thunderous; even a shout couldn't be heard in here. Struggling past the people trying to get out, she made it to the far side of the room. Caroline was there, looking pale without her summer tan, and wearing the snow queen tiara. Bonnie towed her to the microphone. â€Å"You're good at talking. Tell them to get inside and stay in! Tell them to start taking down the decorations. We need anything that'll burn-wood chairs, stuff in garbage cans, anything. Tell them it's our only chance!† She added, as Caroline stared at her, frightened and uncomprehending: â€Å"You've got the crown on now-so do something with it!† She didn't wait to see Caroline obey. She plunged again into the furor of the room. A moment later she heard Caroline's voice, first hesitant and then urgent, on the loudspeakers. It was dead quiet when Elena opened her eyes again. At the hoarse whisper, she tried to focus and found herself looking into pain-filled green eyes. â€Å"Stefan,† she said. She leaned toward him yearningly, wishing she could move. It didn't make sense, but she felt that if they could only hold each other it wouldn't be so bad. There was a childish laugh. Elena didn't turn toward it, but Stefan did. Elena saw his reaction, saw the sequence of expressions passing across his face almost too quickly to identify. Blank shock, disbelief, dawning joy-and then horror. A horror that finally turned his eyes blind and opaque. â€Å"Katherine,† he said. â€Å"But that's impossible. It can't be. You're dead†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Stefan†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Elena said, but he didn't respond. Katherine put a hand in front of her mouth and giggled behind it. â€Å"You wake up, too,† she said, looking on the other side of Elena. Elena felt a surge of Power. After a moment Damon's head lifted slowly, and he blinked. There was no astonishment in his face. He leaned his head back, eyes wearily narrowed, and looked for a minute or so at his captor. Then he smiled, a faint and painful smile, but recognizable. â€Å"Our sweet little white kitten,† he whispered. â€Å"I should have known.† â€Å"You didn't know, though, did you?† Katherine said, as eager as a child playing a game. â€Å"Even you didn't guess. I fooled everyone.† She laughed again. â€Å"It was so much fun, watching you while you were watching Stefan, and neither of you knew I was there. I even scratched you once!† Hooking her fingers into claws, she mimicked a kitten's slash. â€Å"At Elena's house. Yes, I remember,† Damon said slowly. He didn't seem so much angry as vaguely, whimsically amused. â€Å"Well, you're certainly a hunter. The lady and the tiger, as it were.† â€Å"And I put Stefan in that well,† Katherine bragged. â€Å"I saw you two fighting; I liked that. I followed Stefan to the edge of the woods, and then-† She clapped her cupped hands together, like someone catching a moth. Opening them slowly, she peered down into them as if she really had something there, and giggled secretly. â€Å"I was going to keep him to play with,† she confided. Then her lower lip thrust out and she looked at Elena balefully. â€Å"But you took him. That was mean, Elena. You shouldn't have done that.† The dreadful childish slyness was gone from her face, and for a moment Elena glimpsed the searing hatred of a woman. â€Å"Greedy girls get punished,† Katherine said, moving toward her, â€Å"and you're a greedy girl.† Distracted, Katherine stepped back. She looked surprised, then flattered. â€Å"Well-if you really want me to,† she said. She hugged her elbows with her hands and pirouetted again, her golden hair twisting on the floor. â€Å"No,† she said gleefully, turning back and pointing at them. â€Å"You guess. You guess and I'll tell you ‘right' or ‘wrong.' Go on! Elena swallowed, casting a covert glance at Stefan. She didn't see the point of stalling Katherine; it was all going to come out the same in the end. But some instinct told her to hang on to life as long as she could. â€Å"You attacked Vickie,† she said, carefully. Her own voice sounded winded to her ears, but she was positive now. â€Å"The girl in the ruined church that night.† â€Å"Good! Yes,† Katherine cried. She made another kitten swipe with clawed fingers. â€Å"Well, after all, she was in my church,† she added reasonably. â€Å"And what she and that boy were doing-well! You don't do that in church. So, I scratched her!† Katherine drew out the word, demonstrating, like somebody telling a story to a young child. â€Å"And†¦ I licked the blood up!† She licked pale pink lips with her tongue. Then she pointed at Stefan. â€Å"Next guess!† â€Å"You've been hounding her ever since,† Stefan said. He wasn't playing the game; he was making a sickened observation. â€Å"Yes, we're done with that! Go on to something else,† Katherine said sharply. But then she fiddled with the buttons at the neck of her dress, her fingers twinkling. And Elena thought of Vickie, with her startled-fawn eyes, undressing in the cafeteria in front of everyone. â€Å"I made her do silly things.† Katherine laughed. â€Å"She was fun to play with.† Elena's arms were numb and cramped. She realized that she was reflexively straining against the ropes, so offended by Katherine's words that she couldn't hold still. She made herself stop, trying instead to lean back and get a little feeling into her deadened hands. What she was going to do if she got free she didn't know, but she had to try. â€Å"Next guess,† Katherine was saying dangerously. â€Å"Why do you say it's your church?† Damon asked. His voice was still distantly amused, as if none of this affected him at all. â€Å"What about Honoria Fell?† â€Å"Oh, that old spook!† Katherine said maliciously. She peered around behind Elena, her mouth pursed, her eyes glaring. Elena realized for the first time that they were facing the entrance to the crypt, with the ransacked tomb behind them. Maybe Honoria would help them†¦ But then she remembered that quiet, fading voice. This is the only help I can give you. And she knew that no further aid would come. As if she'd read Elena's thoughts, Katherine was saying, â€Å"She can't do anything. She's just a pack of old bones.† The graceful hands made gestures as if Katherine were breaking those bones. â€Å"All she can do is talk, and lots of times I stopped you from hearing her.† Katherine's expression was dark again, and Elena felt an acid twinge of fear. â€Å"Yes! That was funny. You all came running out of the house and started moaning and crying†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Katherine evoked the scene in pantomime: the little dog lying in front of Bonnie's house, the girls rushing out to find his body. â€Å"He tasted bad, but it was worth it. I followed Damon there when he was a crow. I used to follow him a lot. If I wanted I could have grabbed that crow, and†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She made a sharp wringing motion. Bonnie's dream, thought Elena, icy revelation sweeping over her. She didn't even realize she'd spoken aloud until she saw Stefan and Katherine looking at her. â€Å"Bonnie dreamed about you,† she whispered. â€Å"But she thought it was me. She told me that she saw me standing under a tree with the wind blowing. And she was afraid of me. She said I looked different, pale but almost glowing. And a crow flew by and I grabbed it and wrung its neck.† Bile was rising in Elena's throat, and she gulped it down. â€Å"But it was you,† she said. Katherine looked delighted, as if Elena had somehow proved her point. â€Å"People dream about me a lot,† she said smugly. â€Å"Your aunt-she's dreamed about me. I tell her it was her fault you died. She thinks it's you telling her.† â€Å"Oh, God†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"I wish you had died,† Katherine went on, her face turning spiteful. â€Å"You should have died. I kept you in the river long enough. But you were such a tramp, getting blood from both of them, that you came back. Oh, well.† She gave a furtive smile. â€Å"Now I can play with you longer. I lost my temper that day, because I saw Stefan had given you my ring. My ring!† Her voice rose. â€Å"Mine, that I left for them to remember me by. And he gave it to you. That was when I knew I wasn't just going to play with him. I had to kill him.† Stefan's eyes were stricken, confounded. â€Å"But I thought you were dead,† he said. â€Å"You were dead, five hundred years ago. Katherine†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Oh, that was the first time I fooled you,† Katherine said, but there was no glee in her tone now. It was sullen. â€Å"I arranged it all with Gudren, my maid. The two of you wouldn't accept my choice,† she burst out, looking from Stefan to Damon angrily. â€Å"I wanted us all to be happy; I loved you. I loved you both. But that wasn't good enough for you.† Katherine's face had changed again, and Elena saw in it the hurt child of five centuries ago. That must have been what Katherine looked like, then, she thought wonderingly. The wide blue eyes were actually filling with tears. â€Å"I wanted you to love each other.† Katherine went on, sounding bewildered, â€Å"but you wouldn't. And I felt awful. I thought if you thought I'd died, that you would love each other. And I knew I had to go away, anyway, before Papa started to suspect what I was. â€Å"But then†-Katherine's face twisted in grief-â€Å"you did everything all wrong. You were supposed to be sorry, and cry, and comfort each other. I did it for you. But instead you ran and got swords. Why did you do that?† It was a cry from the heart. â€Å"Why didn't you take my gift? You treated it like garbage. I told you in the note that I wanted you to be reconciled with each other. But you didn't listen and you got swords. You killed each other. Why did you do it?† Tears were slipping down Katherine's cheeks, and Stefan's face was wet, too. â€Å"We were stupid,† he said, as caught up in the memory of the past as she was. â€Å"We blamed each other for your death, and we were so stupid†¦ Katherine, listen to me. It was my fault; I was the one who attacked first. And I've been sorry-you don't know how sorry I've been ever since. You don't know how many times I've thought about it and wished there was something I could do to change it. I'd have given anything to take it back-anything. I killed my brother†¦Ã¢â‚¬  His voice cracked, and tears spilled from his eyes. Elena, her heart breaking with grief, turned helplessly to Damon and saw that he wasn't even aware of her. The look of amusement was gone, and his eyes were fixed on Stefan in utter concentration, riveted. â€Å"Katherine, please listen to me,† Stefan said shakily, regaining his voice. â€Å"We've all hurt one another enough. Please let us go now. Or keep me, if you want, but let them leave. I'm the one that's to blame. Keep me, and I'll do whatever you want†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Katherine's jewel-like eyes were liquid and impossibly blue, filled with an endless sorrow. Elena didn't dare to breathe, afraid to break the spell as the slender girl moved toward Stefan, her face softened and yearning. But then the ice inside Katherine crept out again, freezing the tears on her cheeks. â€Å"You should have thought of that a long time ago,† she said. â€Å"I might have listened to you then. I was sorry you'd killed each other at first. I ran away, without even Gudren, back to my home. But then I didn't have anything, not even a new dress, and I was hungry and cold. I might have starved if Klaus hadn't found me.† Klaus. Through her dismay, Elena remembered something Stefan had told her. Klaus was the man who'd made Katherine a vampire, the man the villagers said was evil. â€Å"Klaus taught me the truth,† Katherine said. â€Å"He showed me how the world really is. You have to be strong, and take the things you want. You have to think only of yourself. And I'm the strongest of all now. I am. You know how I got that way?† She answered the question without even waiting for them to respond. â€Å"Lives. So many lives. Humans and vampires, and they're all inside me now. I killed Klaus after a century or two. He was surprised. He didn't know how much I'd learned. â€Å"I brought you here, both of you. I put the thought in your mind, Stefan, the way you put thoughts into a human's. I guided you to this place. And then I made sure Damon followed you. Elena was here. I think she must be related to me somehow; she looks like me. I knew you'd see her and feel guilty. But you weren't supposed to fall in love with her!† The resentfulness in Katherine's voice gave way to fury again. â€Å"You weren't supposed to forget me! You weren't supposed to give her my ring!† â€Å"Katherine†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Katherine swept on. â€Å"Oh, you made me so angry. And now I'm going to make you sorry, really sorry. I know who I hate most now, and it's you, Stefan. Because I loved you best.† She seemed to regain control of herself, wiping the last traces of tears from her face and drawing herself up with exaggerated dignity. â€Å"I don't hate Damon as much,† she said. â€Å"I might even let him live.† Her eyes narrowed, and then widened with an idea. â€Å"Listen, Damon,† she said secretly. â€Å"You're not as stupid as Stefan is. You know the way things really are. I've heard you say it. I've seen things you've done.† She leaned forward. â€Å"I've been lonely since Klaus died. You could keep me company. All you have to do is say you love me best. Then after I kill them we'll go away. You can even kill the girl if you want. I'd let you. What do you think?† Oh, God, thought Elena, sickened again. Damon's eyes were on Katherine's wide blue ones; he seemed to be searching her face. And the whimsical amusement was back in his expression. Oh, God, no, Elena thought. Please, no†¦ Slowly, Damon smiled.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (Injustice)

Analyze the different ways in which injustice is presented in Roll Of Thunder, Hear My Cry. We learn more about â€Å"injustice† as we read through Mildred D. Taylor’s novel: Roll Of Thunder, Hear My Cry. This story reflects on an African American family facing dark and difficult times in Mississippi. Throughout the story, Mildred D. Taylor symbolizes hope and bravery for oneself when facing inequality. In the novel, the author emphasizes injustice throughout problematic stages in Mississippi.Through characters such as Cassie, Little Man and T. J, the author uses several language techniques: sensory imagery, figurative language and flashbacks, allowing the readers to reveal the theme, â€Å"injustice. † Cassie, the protagonist of the story is described as a tough, intelligent and courageous character, who will always stand up for herself and looks after her siblings and friends through all the ups and downs they face.Cassie first demonstrates her boldness as she protects her youngest brother, Little Man. She stands up for him in front of a teacher, despite knowing that she will face consequences. â€Å"Miz Crocker, don’t please! † This quote conveys how scared Cassie and her love towards her brother. Cassie also displays courageousness as she faces injustice at the Wallace’s store, where she is insulted and humiliated for no proper reason. â€Å"Who’s little nigger is this! Mildred D. Taylor uses short sentences and strong words to get straight to the point and speed up the suspense. Cassie demonstrates her intelligence through a ruse she had planned with her Uncle Hammer. She tries to seek revenge from a white, schoolgirl by pretending to be her friend, but afterwards she would teach her a lesson. â€Å"I yanked unmercifully on her long, loose hair. † The author uses sensory imagery to emphasize her Cassie’s violent act.